Christ Superior to the Prophets
1 Long ago, at many times and in many ways, God spoke to our fathers by the prophets, 2 but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed the heir of all things, through whom also he created the world.
1. In the past how God speak to humanity?
Over the course of possibly 1,800 years (from Job, ca. 2200 b.c. to Nehemiah, ca. 400 b.c.) the OT was written in 39 different books reflecting different historical times, locations, cultures, and situations. many ways. These included visions, symbols, and parables, written in both poetry and prose. Though the literary form and style varied, it was always God’s revelation of what He wanted His people to know. The progressive revelation of the OT described God’s program of redemption (1Pe 1:10–12) and His will for His people (Ro 15:4; 2Ti 3:16, 17). MSBN
1 Peter 1:10-12 (ESV) 10 Concerning this salvation, the prophets who prophesied about the grace that was to be yours searched and inquired carefully, 11 inquiring what person or time the Spirit of Christ in them was indicating when he predicted the sufferings of Christ and the subsequent glories. 12 It was revealed to them that they were serving not themselves but you, in the things that have now been announced to you through those who preached the good news to you by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven, things into which angels long to look.
Romans 15:4 (ESV) 4 For whatever was written in former days was written for our instruction, that through endurance and through the encouragement of the Scriptures we might have hope. ‘
2 Timothy 3:16-17 (ESV) 16 All Scripture is breathed out by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, 17 that the man of God may be complete, equipped for every good work.
Long ago contrasts here with “these last days” in v. 2. Two similar Greek words (polymerōs and polytropōs) emphasize the many times and many ways in which God has spoken. This speaking was through prophets, which in Jewish thought included the authors of both the prophetic and the historical books of the OT (even Moses and David). Our fathers are the OT patriarchs (cf. Heb. 3:9; 8:9), whom the author considers his audience’s spiritual forebears. ESVN
Hebrews 3:9 (ESV) 9 where your fathers put me to the test and saw my works for forty years.
Hebrews 8:9 (ESV) 9 not like the covenant that I made with their fathers on the day when I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt. For they did not continue in my covenant, and so I showed no concern for them, declares the Lord.
2. Is God saying that Jesus is the creator and also the heir of creation?
The Lord Jesus Christ is heir of all things. Now this raises a question. In John 1:3 we read, “All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made.” Creation is His, for He created it, we are told. It belongs to Him already, so how can He be the heir of all things? Well, He came to earth and took upon Himself our humanity. The first man in the human race was given dominion over this creation. When God says He gave man dominion over all the earth (see Gen. 1:26), Dominion has to do with rulership. All creation was under him, but when he sinned, he lost that control.
When the Lord Jesus came to this earth, He became a man. He performed miracles in every realm. He had control of the human body. He had control of nature—He could still storms, and He could feed five thousand people. He recovered what Adam had lost. The Lord Jesus is going to be heir of all things. He recovered what Adam lost, and even more than that, He has made us joint–heirs with Himself. Christ is the One who is going to inherit everything. As far as we know, no prophet in the Old Testament was ever promised anything like that. You see, the writer of this epistle is showing us that Christ is superior to the prophets.
“By whom also he made the worlds.” Many people believe this refers to the creative act—“In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth” (Gen. 1:1). Actually, it does not refer to that at all. The Greek word here for “worlds” is aion. It means “ages”—“by whom He made the ages.” This goes beyond His being the Creator. This lends purpose to everything. He is the heir who gives the program for the future. He made the ages, giving purpose for everything. Not only did He create everything, He did it for a purpose.
The Bible makes sense. God had a reason for the things He did, and He has a reason today for the things He continues to do.
God has a program and purpose in everything. The Lord Jesus Christ is the Creator of this universe, and there is purpose to it. It has purpose, and the Lord Jesus is the One who gives it purpose. JVM
3 He is the radiance of the glory of God and the exact imprint of his nature, and he upholds the universe by the word of his power After making purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high,
3. The exact imprint?
Jesus is the full and definitive representation, the exact imprint (Gk. charaktēr), of God’s real being (his nature, Gk. hypostasis). Thus the Son is identical in substance to God, being himself fully God. In all attributes and abilities, the Son is exactly like the Father. ESVN
The Son is “the radiance of His [God’s] glory.” The Greek word apaugasma, translated “radiance,” refers to what shines out from the source of light. Jesus Christ revealed the glory of God in a veiled way during His incarnation. Peter, James, and John saw that radiance revealed more directly on the Mount of Transfiguration (Matt. 17:1-2).
The Son is “the exact representation of His [God’s] nature.” The Greek word charakter, translated “representation,” occurs only here in the New Testament. Greek writers used it to describe the emperor’s picture on Roman coins and the clear-cut impression made by a seal (a facsimile). It did not express a general likeness but an exact duplication of the original. Jesus Christ let humankind know exactly what the nature of God, whom no one has seen, is like during His earthly ministry. CN
This was a topic of great debate in the Arian Controversy, and our text in Hebrews was one of the primary texts that the church fathers employed to refute the Arian error that Jesus was “like the Father” but not of the same essence. The Bible clearly indicates that the two are of the same essence RD
I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all worlds; God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God; begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father, by whom all things were made. From the Nicene Creed
John 10:30 (ESV) I and my Father are one
John 14:9 (ESV) 9 Jesus said to him, 30 I and the Father are one.”“Have I been with you so long, and you still do not know me, Philip? Whoever has seen me has seen the Father. How can you say, ‘Show us the Father’?
4. “he upholds the universe by the word of his power” What does this mean?
Chapter One of Paul’s Epistle to the Colossians gives a further description of the role of Jesus in creation which is consistent with John,
[Jesus] is the image of the invisible God, the first-born [prototokos] of all creation; for in him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or authorities [i.e., hierarchical angelic powers]—all things were created through him and for him. He is before all things, and in him all things hold together. He is the head of the body, the church; he is the beginning, the first-born from the dead, that in everything he might be pre-eminent. For in him all the fullness of God was pleased to dwell, and through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether on earth or in heaven, making peace by the blood of his cross. Colossians 1:15-20
The Holy Spirit, in giving us this inspired passage of Scripture, now explains that all things (both visible and invisible) in the entire universe were created through this same Jesus, the Eternal Word. We may think of the universe and its intricate design as being conceived in the mind of the Father then spoken into existence by the Son (who makes the invisible, visible). The Holy Spirit is the One who energizes and supplies life to the creation, not only at the time of creation but also moment by moment after that.
We are also told that all things were created for Jesus. He is “the heir of all things.” That means that we are house guests in Someone Else’s universe. There is a future accountability to be given by all of us—history is headed somewhere and at the end of road stands Jesus to whom all power and authority has already been given:
Jesus said, “The Father judges no one, but has given all judgment to the Son, that all may honor the Son, even as they honor the Father. He who does not honor the Son does not honor the Father who sent him. Truly, truly, I say to you, he who hears my word and believes him who sent me, has eternal life; he does not come into judgment, but has passed from death to life. Truly, truly, I say to you, the hour is coming, and now is, when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear will live. For as the Father has life in himself, so he has granted the Son also to have life in himself, and has given him authority to execute judgment, because he is the Son of man. Do not marvel at this; for the hour is coming when all who are in the tombs will hear his voice and come forth, those who have done good, to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil, to the resurrection of judgment.“(John 5:22-29)
One of the key words in the Colossians passage above (“…and in Christ all things hold together”) is the Greek word sunistemi which means “to stand-together,” “to be compacted together,” “to cohere,” “to be constituted with.” This passage can be applied to the structure of the atom, for example. The nucleus of every atom is held together by what physicists call “weak” and “strong” forces. (Physicists today are familiar with four basic forces in the natural world: gravity, electrical forces, a “strong,” and a “weak” nuclear force which act at very short ranges. The first two forces decrease in strength inversely with the square of the distance between two objects. Recently two additional close-range, weak gravitational forces have been suggested. These are thought to be quantum mechanical corrections to Newton’s Law of Gravitation.)
The nucleus of the atom contains positively-charged and neutral particles–to use a simplistic model. Mutual electrostatic repulsion between the like-positive protons would drive the nucleus apart if it were not for the “strong force” which binds the nucleus together.
The third New Testament passage which talks about atomic structure and physics is 2 Peter:
“But the Day of the Lord will come like a thief, and then the heavens will pass away with a loud noise and the elements (atoms) will be dissolved with fire and the earth and the works that are upon it will be burned up.” (2 Peter 3:10)
The Greek word translated “elements” in this passage from Colossians is stoicheion which means the building blocks of the universe, or “the ordered arrangement of things.” It can also mean the “atomic elements.” The word translated “dissolved” is literally (in Greek) luo, meaning “unloosed.” This suggests a further, future letting-go of the nuclear binding force that holds the nucleus together. This passage strongly suggests that the active power of God is behind the mysterious strong force that holds every atomic nucleus together. If this is so, all the other fundamental forces of nature are likewise forces that originate with Christ and His sustaining direction of the old creation.
If this is a correct view, were God to merely relax His grasp on the universe every atom would come apart “by fire” (that is, by nuclear fire). God dynamically sustains the universe, including the atoms themselves. They are “stable” only because force from the spiritual realm is being supplied into the physical nuclear binding fields. Whatever we may think of God and physics, the Bible leaves us with no room to doubt that God does care about the sparrow that falls to the ground, the widow, the orphan, and the homeless. He does not lose track of His children and watches over them with infinite, patient, intimate Fatherly care. He sustains the universe by His mighty word of power. He also alters the status quo and, in response to prayer, frequently changes the course of entire nations.
Another important claim of scripture about the old creation is that God is the present Sustainer of the universe. That is, He is not uninvolved, remote, detached and impersonal, leaving things to run by themselves by any means. Among secular scientists today there are many who acknowledge that God exists. But He is usually considered as only a First Cause—the One who brought the universe into existence and set it into motion. But most of these same scientists assume God was not involved after the initial act of creation. This is contrary to clear statements in the Bible that God is very much involved in every event that takes place in the on-going history of the entire universe:
“In many separate revelations—each of which set forth a portion of the Truth—and in different ways God spoke of old to [our] forefathers in and by the prophets, [But] in the last of these days He has spoken to us in [the person of a] Son, Whom He appointed Heir and lawful Owner of all things, also by and through Whom He created the worlds and the reaches of space and the ages of time—[that is] [He made, produced, built, operated, and arranged them in order]. He is the sole expression of the glory of God—[the Light-being, the out-raying or radiance of the divine],—and He is the perfect imprint and very image of [God's] nature, upholding and maintaining and guiding and propelling the universe by His mighty word of power…” (Hebrews 1:2-3) (Amplified Bible).
Again, the fact that Jesus is presently sustaining the universe from the realm of the spiritual raises the question whether there are inputs of energy as well as force into our physical world which ultimately show up as energy added “from the outside” of our physical world considered as a closed system.
5. What does “sat down at the right hand of Majesty on high” mean to believers?
The fact that he has sat down there indicates that his work of salvation had been completed. Majesty also describes God in Heb. 8:1 (cf. Deut. 32:3; Ps. 145:3, 6; 150:2; Jude 25). ESVN
The right hand is the place of power, authority, and honor (cf. v. 13; Ro 8:34; 1Pe 3:22). It is also the position of subordination, implying that the Son is under the authority of the Father (cf. 1Co 15:27, 28). The seat that Christ has taken is the throne of God (8:1; 10:12; 12:2) where He rules as sovereign Lord. This depicts a victorious Savior, not a defeated martyr. While the primary thrust of this phrase is the enthronement of Christ, His sitting might also imply the completion of His atoning work. MSBN
John 19:30 (ESV) 30 When Jesus had received the sour wine, he said, “It is finished,” and he bowed his head and gave up his spirit.
Jesus work on the cross completed perfectly the salvation of those whom God would draw unto Himself. Nothing can be added to His perfect sacrifice and it’s acceptance by the Father.
Having this power and authority as creator and sin-bearer, Christ occupies the place of authority at the right hand of God. As both high priest and sin-bearer, he can present a finished redemption. His work is completed, and he can, therefore, sit down. As the Son of man he occupies this place by the act of God the Father. This is not a place of repose, but of activity for the divine mediator, high priest, and intercessor. WBC
1 John 2:2 (MSG) 2 When he served as a sacrifice for our sins, he solved the sin problem for good—not only ours, but the whole world’s.
Christ Superior to the Angels
4 having become as much superior to angels as the name he has inherited is more excellent than theirs.
6. Why is it important that Jesus is superior to angels?
The main theme of chs. 1 and 2 is announced: Jesus is superior to angels. Angels were objects of much speculation in first-century Judaism. Certainly they were known to appear in human form, to minister before the very throne of God, to guide and protect humans, and to have revealed the Mosaic law (see 1:7; 2:2; 12:22; 13:2). Yet Jesus is deemed superior to them, in part because his name (i.e., his essence) is “Son” (1:5), which points to a more intimate relationship and which speaks of a better family inheritance (all that belongs to the Father belongs to his unique Son). ESVN
The first of the contrasts showing the superiority of Christ is then introduced. The idea of contrast in the thought of superior (kreitōn, “superior,” “becoming superior”) is used thirteen times. Angels were important in delivering God’s message to men. From the giving of the Law on Sinai to the assistance of angels accorded Daniel and the later prophets, these messengers of God served God, but as subordinates. Christ is superior to the angels in his person, name, function, power, and dignity. As for his name, he alone can save the lost (Acts 4:12), and his is the name above every name (Phil 2:10). By his name his reputation is established, for his is a mighty name. WBC
The Gr. verb used here refers to a change of state, not a change of existence. The Son in His divine essence has eternally existed, but for a while He was made lower than the angels (2:9) and afterward was exalted to an infinitely higher position by virtue of what He had accomplished in His redemptive work (see notes on Php 2:9–11). angels. Spirit beings created by God to minister to Him and do His bidding. The Jews held angels in very high regard as the highest beings next to God. The sect of Judaism which had established a community at Qumran taught that the archangel Michael’s authority rivaled or surpassed that of the Messiah. The writer of Hebrews clearly disclaims any such concept. The Son of God is superior to the angels. more excellent name. That name is Lord (see notes on Php 2:9–11). No angel is Sovereign Lord (vv. 6, 13, 14). MSBN
5 For to which of the angels did God ever say, “You are my Son, today I have begotten you”? “I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son”?
7. Indeed, which of the angels……?
David referred to Jesus Christ as God’s Son in Psalm 2:7, the verse the writer quoted first. The Old Testament writers referred to angels collectively as the “sons of God” (Job. 1:6; 2:1; 38:7), but they did not refer to any one of them as a Son of God. “Son of God” is a title that refers to one of the Davidic kings (2 Sam. 7:14) and specifically to Jesus Christ, God the Son (Mark 1:11; Luke 1:32). “Today” evidently refers to Jesus Christ’s entrance into heaven. This happened after His resurrection and at His ascension.
The eternal Son of God “. . . entered into the full exercise of all the prerogatives implied by His Sonship when, after His suffering had proved the completeness of His obedience, He was raised to the Father’s right hand.”
The second quotation, from 2 Samuel 7:14 or 1 Chronicles 17:13, like the first, ties in with the Davidic Covenant and advances the previous point. Not only is Jesus the Son of God, He is also the promised son of David (Luke 1:32-33, 68-69; Rom. 1:3). Even though Jesus Christ was always God’s eternal Son, He became the Son prophesied to rule over David’s house. He received permission to rule the whole earth after His ascension (cf. Ps. 2:8).
The title “Son” refers to Jesus in three separate respects. He was always the pre-existent Son (v. 3a-b; cf. 5:8), He became the incarnate Son at His birth (v. 2a, possibly a proleptic reference), and He became the exalted Son when He returned to heaven.
Note the chiastic style of the quotations, which begin and end with references to the Son surrounding references to the Father. This has the effect of stressing the Father but uniting the Son closely with Him. CN
6 And again, when he brings the firstborn into the world, he says, “Let all God’s angels worship him.” 7 Of the angels he says, “He makes his angels winds, and his ministers a flame of fire.”
8. Why is it important for us to understand that angels worship him?
Jesus is superior to the angels because angels worship and serve Jesus, who is their God, as shown in Deu_32:43 (in the Septuagint and the Dead Sea Scrolls) and Psa_104:4.
But when He again brings the firstborn into the world, He says: “Let all the angels of God worship Him.” And of the angels He says: “Who makes His angels spirits and His ministers a flame of fire.”
a. Firstborn was as much a concept as it was a designation for the one born first; since the firstborn son was “first in line” and received the position of favor and honor, the title “firstborn” could be given to indicate that someone was of the highest position and honor.
i. Many of those not born first in the Bible are given the title “firstborn.” David is an example of this (Psa_89:27) and so is Ephraim (Jer_31:9).
ii. According to Rabbi Bechai, quoted in Lightfoot, the ancient Rabbis called Yahweh Himself “Firstborn of the World.” It was a title, not a description of origin.
iii. Rabbis used firstborn as specifically a Messianic title. One ancient Rabbi wrote, “God said, As I made Jacob a first-born (Exo_4:22), so also will I make king Messiah a first-born (Psa_89:28).”
b. Let all the angels of God worship Him: Jesus is superior because He is the object of angelic worship, not an angelic worshipper. They worship Him; He does not worship among them.
i. Revelation 5 gives a glimpse of the angelic worship of Jesus.
c. Furthermore, Jesus is Lord of the angels. They are His angels and His ministers. The angels belong to Jesus, and He is not among them. GC
In Israel, the firstborn son was to inherit the mantle of leading the family in his father’s place. The firstborn also received a double portion of the father’s inheritance. This is why, when twins were born, great care was taken to identify the first to come from the womb. The author is not speaking here about the birth of baby Jesus in Bethlehem. But here, as elsewhere in the New Testament, he is talking about the preeminence of Jesus as the “firstborn Son.” Remember as well that Jesus is not only the “firstborn,” He is also the “only begotten” Son, so that He alone is the heir of all things.
The author’s point here is Jesus has the preeminent place and that the role of the angels is to worship Him. It is the lesser beings who worship the greater being – Jesus. I am reminded of the instances where men prostrated themselves before angels and were stopped because only God can be worshipped.
Psalm 104 speaks of the might and majesty of God. He who created all things is now described as commandeering them for His service. He wears the light as a cloak (verse 2); He makes the clouds His chariot. He makes the angels spirits and His ministers a flame of fire. There is little question as to who is superior here – it is the One who is served, rather than the creature things (angels, light, clouds) that serve His purposes. He is the Son; the angels are His servants. Indeed, they not only serve Him, they worship Him as God. The angels were at His disposal, even when He was on the cross:
51 But one of those with Jesus grabbed his sword, drew it out, and struck the high priest’s slave, cutting off his ear. 52 Then Jesus said to him, “Put your sword back in its place! For all who take hold of the sword will die by the sword. 53 Or do you think that I cannot call on my Father, and that he would send me more than twelve legions of angels right now? Matthew 26:51-53 RD
8 But of the Son he says, “Your throne, O God, is forever and ever, the scepter of uprightness is the scepter of your kingdom. 9 You have loved righteousness and hated wickedness; therefore God, your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness beyond your companions.”
9. Why does the writer stress the righteousness and eternality of the kingdom?
These verses are a quotation from Psalm 45:6–7 which reveals that it is one of the great messianic psalms. Psalm 45 tells us that there is One coming in the line of David who will rule in righteousness. David is so thrilled about this prospect that he says, “… My tongue is the pen of a ready writer” (Ps. 45:1). David is saying, “I could tell you about this much better than I could write about it.” This One who is coming, according to the writer to the Hebrews, is the Lord Jesus Christ. He is the One who will rule in righteousness. God has not given the right to rule the earth to any angel.
“Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated iniquity” is a tremendous statement. Imagine this old earth being ruled by One who loves righteousness and hates iniquity!
“Thy throne, O God.” This is God the Father calling God the Son God! Do you want to deny that Christ is God manifest in the flesh? If you do, then may I say that you are contradicting God Himself. God called the Lord Jesus God. What are you going to call Him? I don’t know about you, but I am also going to call Him God. He is God manifest in the flesh. He is superior to angels because He is going to rule over the universe. He is the Messiah. He is the King of Kings and Lord of Lords who is going to rule over the earth some day. JVM
Psalm 45:6-7 (ESV) 6 Your throne, O God, is forever and ever. The scepter of your kingdom is a scepter of uprightness; 7 you have loved righteousness and hated wickedness. Therefore God, your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness beyond your companions;
There is so much that could be said about these verses, but let us dwell on what is probably the most prominent theme – the eternality of the Son. What makes the Son superior to the angels? The Son is the Eternal One, the Creator. His days have no beginning or end. But all creation has a point of beginning, and a time when it will perish. RD
10 And, “You, Lord, laid the foundation of the earth in the beginning, and the heavens are the work of your hands; 11 they will perish, but you remain; they will all wear out like a garment, 12 like a robe you will roll them up, like a garment they will be changed. But you are the same, and your years will have no end.”
10. How is the immutable Son contrasted to the creation.
The Son who created the universe (Jn 1:1–3), one day will destroy the heavens and earth that He created (2Pe 3:10–13), but He remains unchanged. Immutability is yet another characteristic of the divine essence. Once again the OT testifies of the Son’s deity. MSBN
10 But the day of the Lord will come like a thief, and then the heavens will pass away with a roar, and the heavenly bodies will be burned up and dissolved, and the earth and the works that are done on it will be exposed. 11 Since all these things are thus to be dissolved, what sort of people ought you to be in lives of holiness and godliness, 12 waiting for and hastening the coming of the day of God, because of which the heavens will be set on fire and dissolved, and the heavenly bodies will melt as they burn! 13 But according to his promise we are waiting for new heavens and a new earth in which righteousness dwells. 2 Peter 3:10-13 (ESV)
The “heavens” refer to the physical universe. The “roar” connotes a whistling or a crackling sound as of objects being consumed by flames. God will incinerate the universe, probably in an atomic reaction that disintegrates all matter as we know it, the elements will be destroyed with intense heat. The “elements” are the atomic components into which matter is ultimately divisible, which make up the composition of all the created matter. Peter means that the atoms, neutrons, protons, and electrons are all going to disintegrate (v. 11). the earth and its works. The whole of the physical, natural earth in its present form, with its entire universe will be consumed. MSBN
13 And to which of the angels has he ever said, “Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet”? 14 Are they not all ministering spirits sent out to serve for the sake of those who are to inherit salvation?
11. How do angels relate to us?
God revealed a primary purpose and ministry of the angels in this verse. It is to assist human beings in reaching their final deliverance over their spiritual enemies. This includes bringing us to conversion. However, it also involves protecting and strengthening us so that we may one day obtain our full inheritance with Christ in glory. This ministry of service is obviously inferior to Jesus Christ’s ministry of ruling.
Was the writer speaking of all Christians or only of faithful Christians when He wrote of “those who will inherit salvation?” The word “salvation” (Gr. soteria) occurs seven times in Hebrews, more than in any other book of the New Testament. In some of his other uses of “inheritance” and “inherit” he referred to all Christians as inheriting from God (e.g., 9:15; cf. 11:8). At other times he apparently meant only faithful Christians (e.g., 6:12; cf. 11:17). I think he was probably speaking of all Christians here in view of what he just said about the ministry of angels. There is no other Scripture that limits the angels’ ministry to faithful Christians or indicates that angels have a special ministry to faithful Christians (cf. Matt. 18:10).
“‘Inherit’ is often used in the NT in senses other than the strict one of obtaining something by a will. It can mean ‘obtain possession of’ without regard to the means. It is used of possessing the earth (Matt 5:5), the kingdom of God (1 Cor 6:9-10), eternal life (Mark 10:17), the promises (Heb 6:12), incorruption (1 Cor. 15:50), blessing (Heb 12:17), a more excellent name (v. 4, . . .).”
This writer spoke of the inheritance of Christians as the Old Testament writers spoke of the inheritance of the Israelites. Our inheritance refers to all that God wants to give His people. We will inevitably receive some of that (cf. 1 Per. 1:3-9). However, we can forfeit part of our inheritance through unfaithfulness, as Esau did (12:16) and as the generation of Israelites who died in the wilderness did (3:7—4:11).
“In contrast with the first part of this verse, the last three words [“will inherit salvation”] are all major concepts in Hebrews.” CN
ESVN……………..….ESV Study Bible Notes
MSBN……………….MacArthur NASB Study Notes
NIVSN……………….NIV Study Notes.
JVM ………………….J Vernon McGee’s Commentary
BN ……………………Barnes Notes
WBC………….…….Wycliffe Bible Commentary
CN ……….…………..Constables Notes
NET…………….…….Net Bible Study Notes.
JFB……………………Jamieson Fausset Brown Commentary
VWS………………….Vincent Word Studies
CMM………………..Commentary on Matthew and Mark
BDB……………..….Barclay’s Daily Study Bible (NT)
Darby……………….John Darby’s Synopsis of the OT and NT
Johnson……………Johnson’s Notes on the New Testament
NTCMM…………..The New Testament Commentary: Matthew and Mark.
EHS………………….Expositions of the Holy Scriptures
CPP…………………The Complete Pulpit Commentary
SBC…………………..Sermon Bible Commentary
K&D…………………Keil and Deilitzsch Commentary on the OT
EBC……………….…Expositors Bible Commentary
CBSC……………….Cambridge Bible for Schools and College
NSB …………………The Nelson Study Bible
MHC…………………Matthew Henry Commentary
CSTTB………Chuck Smith Through The Bible
BBC…………….Bridgeway Bible commentary
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